College of Human Sciences and Humanities Projects, Theses, and Dissertations

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    Sense of Belonging and the Imposter Phenomenon among International College Students
    (2022-12-05) Tura, Gozde; Johnston, Amanda; Sublett, Lisa
    This study examined the association between the imposter phenomenon (IP) and a sense of belonging and planned to examine the differences between international students and domestic students on these psychological experiences. In addition, the study also explored the effect of the imposter phenomenon and sense of belonging on the subjective well-being of individuals by examining the students' self-reported happiness. I hypothesized that lower levels of belonging would be associated with higher feelings of being an imposter. The study was conducted with a total of 127 domestic students, including 65 first-generation students and 62 continuing-generation students, recruited from the University of Houston-Clear Lake Psychology Participant Pool. Participants completed the Social Connectedness and Social Assurance Scale (Lee & Robbins, 1995), the University Belonging Questionnaire (Slaten et al., 2017), the Clance IP Scale (1985), and the General Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999). No significant differences were found between the first-generation students and continuing-generation students except for subjective happiness, with first-generation students reporting less happiness than their peers. Across all participants and consistent with my hypotheses, I found a significant negative correlation between belonging and imposter phenomenon, and between subjective happiness and imposter phenomenon. The results suggest that students who feel more belonging are also more likely to feel happy and less likely to feel like an imposter, reminding us of the importance for universities to cultivate a sense of belonging for their students.
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    The Influence of Childhood Maltreatment and Trait Mindfulness on the Mental Health of Emerging Adults
    (2022-08-01) Ranton, Katherine; Strait, Gerald G; Strait, Julia E; Morgan, Valerie
    According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services (2020), over one million children are exposed to maltreatment annually (Norman, Hawkley, Ball, Bernston, & Cacioppo, 2013). Exposure to maltreatment in childhood is associated with multiple negative outcomes in adulthood, such as anxiety, depression, impairments in functioning, and lower levels of overall achievement. This study investigates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and its influence on depression, anxiety, and trait mindfulness. In this study, multiple regression analyses were used to determine if a moderating relationship exists between childhood maltreatment, trait mindfulness, and symptom severity of depression and anxiety in university students. Major findings can be used to inform clinical treatment and interventions used to meet the needs of this vulnerable population as they matriculate through college.
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    A Comparison of Noncontingent and Synchronous Reinforcement on Task Engagement
    (2022-04-29) Hardesty, Elizabeth M; Lerman, Dorothea C; Lechago, Sarah A.; Fritz, Jennifer N
    Synchronous schedules of reinforcement are those in which the onset and offset of a reinforcer are synchronized with the onset and offset of a target behavior. The current study replicated and extended Diaz de Villegas et al. (2020) through the evaluation of a synchronous schedule of reinforcement with a noncontingent schedule of reinforcement by evaluating the on-task behavior (completing math facts) of school-age children. A concurrent-chains preference assessment was then used to determine the preferred schedule of reinforcement. In addition, task preference assessments were conducted prior to and after the reinforcer assessment to determine potential mechanisms of noncontingent reinforcement. Results indicated that while synchronous schedules of reinforcement are more effective at increasing on-task behavior, noncontingent schedules of reinforcement may be more preferred. Additionally, the use of synchronous and noncontingent schedules of reinforcement are insufficient at manipulating the preference of a task item.
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    Telehealth Training of Caregivers to Increase PAP Machine Use in Adults with Down syndrome
    (2022-04-29) Walker, Emma Jean; Lerman, Dorothea; Fritz, Jennifer; Lechago, Sarah
    A common sleep disorder among individuals with Down syndrome is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The most common treatment of OSA is Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) therapy. However, adherence to PAP therapy prescriptions is low. The high prevalence of OSA and low adherence with PAP therapy emphasized the need for an intervention to increase PAP machine use in individuals with DS. The following study evaluated a caregiver-implemented behavioral intervention aiming to increase PAP machine use in adults with DS using a multiple baseline across participants design. Participants in this study included three adults diagnosed with DS and OSA. The researchers utilized behavioral skills training via videoconferencing software to train the caregivers to implement the intervention. The intervention included the use of graduated exposure to the PAP therapy (i.e., slow progression of steps leading up to 4 hours of PAP machine use), differential negative reinforcement (i.e., longer breaks following compliance, shorter breaks following noncompliance with the graduated exposure step), contingent positive reinforcement (i.e., rewards following compliance with the graduated exposure step) and noncontingent positive reinforcement (i.e., access to a leisure item during intervention sessions). This caregiver-implemented behavioral intervention was effective at increasing PAP machine use for all participants. The results of this study serve as preliminary results for the effectiveness of this behavioral intervention when implemented by caregivers.
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    Without a paddle: Utilizing oars within an online problem-solving communication program to improve the parent-child relationship
    (2021-12-10) Casillas, Laurel M; Elkins, Sara R; Short, Mary B; Schanding, G. Thomas; Walther, Christine
    Although parent-child conflict is a normative feature in adolescence, it may result in negative outcomes when it occurs frequently and at high intensity. Parental support behaviors (e.g., warmth, communication, reinforcement) are important during adolescent development to shape appropriate behaviors, while providing opportunities to reinforce the adolescent’s autonomy. While behavioral parent training interventions are effective for helping parents manage parent-child conflict that emerges during this developmental period, engagement and retention for face-to-face therapy are problematic. These concerns become more apparent for underserved populations. Efforts to increase accessibility of parenting interventions (e.g., I-PCIT, Triple-P Parenting Program) through online platforms have generated support for internet interventions with younger children. Far fewer studies have investigated online behavioral interventions for parents of adolescents. The aims of this study are to pilot the feasibility and acceptability of an online parenting intervention for parent-adolescent conflict, as well as assess program outcomes for both caregivers and their adolescents (ages 11 to 14). The self-directed program was adapted from components of Problem-Solving/Communication Training (PSCT), an evidence-based parent management intervention for parents of adolescents. Didactic skills, modeling, and practice assignments translated core PSCT components, and specific communication strategies were added to the model (OARS: Open Questions, Affirmations, Reflections, Summaries). Feasibility data indicate participants perceived the intervention to be accessible and acceptable. Preliminary treatment outcome findings indicate improvements in multiple domains (i.e., relationship quality, involvement, communication, and conflict) following program completion.
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    Post-Pandemic Theatre: The Transformation of the Literary Form Through the Digital Landscape
    (2023-04-28) Haden, Elizabeth; Klett, Elizabeth; Clody, Michael
    The digital landscape has had a significant impact on literature and the way in which it is consumed, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. The shift towards digital operations has enabled the rise of digital literary forms, such as audiobooks and electronic literature, which have opened up new possibilities for interpretation and pedagogy. At the same time, this literary transition to technology has enabled the revival of oral traditions in literature, bringing a new level of immersion and engagement to the reading experience. This thesis explores the impact of the digitized productions on the performance of various Western writers, such as Shakespeare, Euripides, and Strindberg as well as the production considerations of Houston’s own Alley Theatre . Through the use of digital media and multimodal compositions, the digital landscape has enabled the creation of new and innovative aural and visual modes of experiencing Shakespeare's works and has forever altered the production considerations of the local theatre and other similar institutions. As we move further into the digital age, it is important to consider the ways in which these changes are shaping our experiences and interactions with literature, theatre, and the world around us.
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    The Tertiary Breath System: Inquiry into Achieving Autonomous Breath
    (2022-12-09) Burkhart, Cody Wayne; Kelling, Nicholas; Ward, Christopher
    When considering the problems faced by astronauts, we find a wide gambit of opportunistic threats. Beyond standard Countermeasures, Human-countermeasures (H-CMS) – those countermeasures systems that are already engrained in our biology and can be trained or utilized through extraneous support technologies – offer unique, novel tools against these threats. One H-CMS is breath. Breath, or respiration, has a deep body of research to support numerous physiological and psychological (often creating a psychophysiological loop) response mechanisms that can have both acute and wide-ranging impacts on our human state. Further, the dualistic nature of breath (i.e., its ability to be both manually and automatically controlled) makes it the only human vital function that can be conditioned. This investigation explores the use of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation (GVS) as a display (i.e., stimulus delivery) technology, in attending to limitations of display landscapes (e.g., audio/visual environments are heavily polluted with data demands on a user). GVS uses electrical current to stimulate vestibular nuclei and has been demonstrated to be removed from self-motion commands at high-frequency. The study showed clear stimulus control of the subject through the GVS cue (with correct, conditioned response rates of M = 97.1%, SD = 5.08) and showed a statistically significant effect on the reduction of breathing frequency, t(26) = 8.36, p<.001; d = 1.61– as is expected both by a) the presence of the deep slow breathing (DSB) behavior being cued, as well as via b) the cascading effects of parasympathetic nervous system engagement initiated by DSB design. While the study did also there was no support for the research hypothesis – that there would be a relationship between the idealized breath topography and the conditioned-gamified (i.e., distracted, conditioned) performance – for, both, duration, t(26) = 9.95, p<.001; d = 1.91, and depth, t(26) = 3.28, p = 0.003; d = 0.631, extended comparative assessments against the subject under load (i.e., gamified pacman, unconditioned) for duration, t(26) = 21.4, p<.001; d = 4.11, and depth, t(26) = 13.4, p<.001; d = 2.58, suggest that the executed breath is much more like the idealized breath than the subject’s nominal breath. Overall, while further trails/time could improve the topography of the skill, there is a clear opportunity present in conditioning breath. Expansion of this work would enable increased respiration complexity and the creation of autonomous breath pathways to enhance human potential, especially in austere environments (i.e., allowing artificial intelligence to optimize breath protocols based on other missions, self, and environmental conditions or deltas).
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    The Association Between Gendered Racial Microaggressions and Self-Efficacy
    (2022-12-05) Williams, Mijaya W; Johnston, Amanda; Dominguez, Giazu
    This study examined the association between general self-efficacy beliefs and racial microaggressions for Black women. Specifically, if the self-efficacy of Black women is impacted when met with racial microaggressions. I predicted self-efficacy would be negatively associated with the experience of microaggressions. Participants reflected on a microaggression experience and answered questions regarding their general self-efficacy, racial microaggression experiences, and their Black identity. Although results demonstrated self-efficacy was not negatively associated with racial microaggressions as predicted, varying tenets of Black identity were associated with self-efficacy and racial microaggression experiences. Limitations and implications of the study are addressed, as this research contributes to our understanding of microaggression experiences for Black women.
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    An Analysis of Employee Work Environment: Improving Methods for Engagement, Affective Commitment, and Return-to-Office Strategies
    (2022-12-07) Egbe, Amaka; Sublett, Lisa; Milam, Alex
    Employee engagement and organizational affective commitment are increasingly popular topics, especially with the rise of remote workplaces and hybrid work models. This project focuses on the engagement and commitment levels of employees at a mid-sized software organization. While this organization (hereafter referred to as "The Company") is a global entity, this project focused on its United States branch. After the onset of the coronavirus pandemic, travel for events and on-site client engagements were heavily disrupted, as did their in-person work schedule. Employee engagement and affective organizational commitment were observed utilizing a 33-item survey that included existing measures such as Utrecht's Work Engagement Scale (2004) and the Allen & Meyer (1990) Organizational Commitment Survey. The results gathered from the survey helped to create an informed guide for an interview which provided clarity on employee engagement and commitment in relation to one’s work environment. The results gathered from the survey suggest that frequency of remote work positively correlates with employee engagement, but not with affective commitment. Changes to the frequency of remote work negatively correlate with higher levels of engagement and organizational commitment. There were no significant differences in engagement or commitment with race, but tenure, gender, and age were found to have a significant positive relationship with commitment. There is an additional need for change management initiatives to ease employees into any work format and scheduling shifts. Additionally, when transitioning work schedules or planning return-to-office initiatives, change management processes may be required to ensure that engagement levels do not decrease.
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    Dialecticism, Collectivism, and Stereotype Change
    (2022-12-01) Fick, Virginia Lawrence; Johnston, Amanda; Moreno, Georgina
    This study explores the relationship between cultural variables, individualism, collectivism, and dialecticism, with the tendency to modify initial beliefs (i.e., stereotypes) after being presented with contradictory information. Using the Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism and Collectivism Scale and the Spencer-Rodgers et al. (2015) Dialectical Self Scale, as well as a Stereotyping Questionnaire adapted from the research of Spencer-Rodgers et al. (2007), this study explores this relationship in three different racial/ethnic cultures within the United States, as these populations theoretically differ on these cultural variables. It was hypothesized that participants identifying as Asian (a population theoretically relatively high on dialecticism and collectivism) will be more likely to adjust their initial beliefs about a novel social group than participants identifying as Latinx (theoretically high in collectivism, low in dialecticism) or White non-Latinx (theoretically low in both collectivism and dialecticism). I found support for the concept that cultural variables, independent of race or ethnicity, correlate with stereotype change, although I did not find support for the hypothesis that these cultural groups would differ in predictable ways according to the cultural constructs in question. This study attempts to address the lack of research about the influence of cultural variables on stereotyping processes, as well as compensate for the lack of cross-cultural studies which allow for the generalization of findings beyond Westernized, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (W.E.I.R.D) settings.
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    Temporal Effects of Top-Down Emotion Regulation Strategies on Affect, Working Memory Load, and Attentional Deployment
    (2022-08-05) Baykal, Evrim; Moreno, Georgina; Kelling, Nicholas
    Prior research has elucidated the effectiveness of top-down emotion regulation strategies of cognitive reappraisal (CR) and guided attention (GA) at minimizing negative feelings while also being cognitively demanding. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes are not well understood. The current study uses eye-tracking to explore the temporal effects of two top-down emotion regulation strategies–cognitive regulation and guided attention–on attentional deployment, working memory load, and emotion regulation effectiveness. 54 participants (Mage=25.42±5.01yrs) completed an emotion regulation task while measuring pupillometry and gaze fixations. During the task, participants implemented CR or GA strategies while viewing negative images then rated their feelings. Two-way, repeated-measures ANOVA inferential statistical procedure was used to separately examine effects of strategy (guided attention vs cognitive reappraisal), time (brief, 4s vs sustained, 8s), and strategy by time interactions on emotion regulation effectiveness (self-reported affect), working memory load (inter-trial change in pupil diameter), and attentional deployment (% of total trial fixations on AOI). Analyses revealed sustained duration trials (8s) yielded greater fixations to negative stimuli as compared to brief duration trials (4s), while emotion regulation effectiveness was not significantly changed. CR resulted in higher fixations to negative AOI than GA yet was more effective at regulating emotion. In conclusion, this work suggests that implementing top-down emotion regulation may sustain emotion regulation effectiveness, and CR particularly maintains emotion regulation effectiveness. A better understanding of the temporal effects of top-down emotion regulation strategies on affect, attentional deployment, and working memory could reveal more insight into differences in interpreting and behaviorally responding to emotional stimuli.
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    Cultural Competence for Health Care Providers: Undocumented Immigrant Latino/a Patients
    (2022-08-05) Zare, Sheila; Lucas, Amy; Walther, Christine
    The United States’ relationship with immigrants is complicated. Economically the country utilizes the labor and services many immigrants provide at an unethically reduced cost. Historically labor has been imported from other countries, with a heavy focus on Latin America in recent years, and foreign policy has been implemented to augment this approach. However, politically immigrants are often used as scapegoats for unemployment and crime, including human trafficking. Unfortunately, many Latino/a undocumented immigrants are forced into situations where their standard of living directly impacts their health. In the United States, healthcare is inaccessible to undocumented immigrants regardless of the cause of their ailments. Most of the United States has failed to address access to healthcare for undocumented immigrants, and the health care system has become so privatized that compassionate care and acute health services, which have access delegated by local governments, are the only option for undocumented immigrants. The purpose of this project is not to prove that policy can be implemented to improve access to healthcare, nor is it to prove that the undocumented population is a burden to the system. Instead, it will focus on educating individual providers about how to better assess undocumented patients by understanding their culture and concerns. This project will present a handout informing providers of cultural considerations that help build rapport with Latino/a immigrant patients. It also includes an overview of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition Text Revision (DSM-V-TR, APA, 2022) components that focus on cultural assessment.
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    Cultural Differences in Heart Rate Variability and Stress Response
    (2022-08-04) Rodriguez, Hannah Renee; Moreno, Georgina; Rios, Desdamona
    It is well established that cultural values influence stress, however, very little research has investigated the psychophysiological underpinnings of these processes. The current study investigated whether differences due to individualist and collectivist culture traits (i.e., independence, interdependence) exist in psychophysiological processing (i.e., heart rate variability) and during the stress response. Aim 1 investigated whether there was a difference in resting heart rate and resting heart rate variability measurements between individualist and collectivist orientations. It was hypothesized that collectivists would display a decrease in heart rate variability measurements compared to their individualistic counterparts. Aim 2 investigated if there was a difference in the heart rate variability measurements between individualists and collectivists during an acute stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test. It was hypothesized that, when presented with an acute stressor, collectivists would display a decrease in heart rate variability. A sample of 28 healthy adults were included in these analyses. Participants completed the Self-Construal Scale (SCS) and were categorized into collectivist (N=11) or individualist (N=14) groups based on their scores. Beats-per-minute recordings were taken during a ten-minute baseline period prior to completion of the stressor and taken throughout the duration of the stressor. A significant difference was found between collectivist and individualist orientations at rest (i.e., during baseline measurements) for average heart rate and average R-R interval, with collectivists having higher heart rates but smaller R-R intervals as compared to individualists. A significant difference was also found between collectivist and individualist orientations for average heart rate and average R-R intervals during the acute stressor, however, there was no interaction between collectivistic/individualistic orientation and stress. These results suggest that cultural constructs of individualism and collectivism may affect heart rate and R-R intervals during resting and stressed conditions. This work highlights the importance of better understanding the effect of culture on psychophysiological processes within an individual.
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    Modifying an Adult Version of a Cancer Symptom Inventory to Be Used with Children with Cancer
    (2022-08-02) Darban, Behnaz; Short, Mary; Short, Rick; Ward, Christopher
    Childhood cancer is the second most common cause of death and the first cause of disease-related death among children in the United States. Each year, approximately 15,000 children and adolescents are diagnosed with cancer. Given that children with cancer experience multiple psychological and physical symptoms and functional impairments that are associated with cancer and its treatment, it is important that these symptoms and functional impairments be identified and measured. The primary aim of the present study was to develop a self-report measure that included multiple symptoms and functional impairments. This goal was achieved by modifying the adult version of an already existing measure (MD Anderson Symptom Inventory) to be used with children 8-12 years of age. The modification process was based on the results from interviews with experts, caregivers, and children to ensure that the modified measure was developmentally appropriate for children in the age range of 8-12. Upon completion of interviews and several revisions, the final version of the measure was used to explore the initial psychometrics of the modified measure. This study demonstrated that the modified measure (MDASI-C) is age-appropriate and children as young as 8 years old can comprehend and respond to items on the measure. Including both symptoms and functional impairments when assessing patients’ responses is essential to our understanding of how cancer affects children. The MDASI-C (8-12) is a useful measure for evaluation of the severity and impairments associated with symptoms in a pediatric oncology population.
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    Exploring potential correlates of student support service utilization, disclosure, adjustment, and fit among postsecondary students with neurodevelopmental disorders
    (2022-05-06) Hunter, Hannah A.G.; Walther, Christine A.P.; Lerman, Dorothea
    This study examined campus-based student support service utilization and potential relationships among attitudes and perceptions related to support service utilization among current University of Houston-Clear Lake students with at least one neurodevelopmental condition (NDD). Participants (n = 34) provided information about personal characteristics, service use, service needs, and perceived barriers to service use, as well as attitudes toward neurodevelopmental diagnosis disclosure, attitudes toward adjustment to college, and perceptions of academic fit. Results indicated that perceptions of adjustment to college and academic fit may be a particularly salient aspect of postsecondary experiences among students with NDD. In addition, perceptions of specific barriers to student support service use may be closely related to attitudes about adjustment to college and academic fit.
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    Systematic review and meta-analysis of Pimavanserin and Volinanserin in Schizophrena treatment
    (2022-05-12) Vargas Cruz, Nylev Suann; Moreno, Georgina; Malin, David; Ward, Christopher
    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that affects 1% of the population. Despite its low prevalence, it is ranked among the top fifteen leading causes of disability worldwide. Antipsychotics targeting serotonergic receptors, specifically 5-HT2A receptors, are being developed for schizophrenia treatment and continue to show promise. Pimavanserin and Volinanserin are two such atypical antipsychotics that are highly selective towards the 5-HT2A receptor. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of Volinanserin (MDL-100907) and Pimavanserin (ACP-103) to evaluate the effectiveness of these drugs in the treatment of schizophrenia. A literature search was performed using Pub-Med,, and Cochrane databases. Our search strategy consisted of the following strings: Pimavanserin or ACP-103 and Volinanserin or MDL-100907 and Schizophrenia or Schizophrenia spectrum. Based on comparable outcomes of measurement (i.e., PANSS, SGI, KSS, DAI-10), Pimavanserin is a safe adjunctive treatment. However, there is not enough data to conclude efficacy. These results provide additional support for 5-HT2A as a key component for the treatment of schizophrenia. Continued research is needed on the efficacy of Pimavanserin, Volinanserin, and other drugs that target 5-HT2A receptors in the treatment of schizophrenia.
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    Dearest Rhia
    (2022-05-06) Francey, Sophie Mariah; Brims, Michael C; Klyueva, Anna
    Dearest Rhia is an autoethnographic documentary film that explores whether humans have psychic abilities. It places the researcher (myself) as the subject of this autoethnographic documentary, defined as a type of self-narrative that situates the self in a social framework (Narayan, 2006). The multidisciplinary character of this investigation focuses on the topic of spiritual awakening of psychic abilities. Researchers use the autoethnographic study approach to examine subjectiveness and personal experiences, seeing the self as “another” while highlighting concerns (Strang, 2019). The uniqueness of this project is expressed through the choice of topic (spiritual awakening of psychic abilities) and method of distribution (TikTok miniseries). The social media application TikTok has brought virality to many topics, including spirituality. With the increased awareness of spirituality and bringing like-minded individuals together, many TikTok influencers believe the theory that all humans have psychic abilities. These spiritual influencers will share this theory with their followers via TikTok videos. As the researcher, I was interested in learning if I, myself, had psychic abilities because I had been told in previous psychic readings that I have these abilities, or was I influenced by the TikTok algorithm to believe I have psychic abilities? The purpose of Dearest Rhia is to explore and self-reflect if I, Sophie Mariah Francey, have psychic abilities, or am I only being highly influenced by media (and the media’s influencers) promoting the theory that humans have psychic abilities? This autoethnographic documentary uses storytelling, graphics, research, training courses, experimentation, and expert interviews to accomplish its task.
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    Gender ideology and influencing society: Destabilizing the normalization of gender-based violence through infographics
    (2021-12-08) Heysquierdo, Daniella V; Lucas, Amy; Jin, Hae Rim
    Informing individuals about how gender ideology influences society is vital in today’s world. Changing the conversations about sexual assault and rape can help destabilize the normalization of gender-based violence. It is important to foster a safe environment for individuals to share and to allow people to learn about these topics to make them less taboo or controversial. The project discussed is intended to assist in talking about gender, sexuality, consent, and domestic violence more openly. As a result of this project, topics could be expanded in the future to include bodily autonomy, sex, equal rights, racism, misogyny, and bigotry. Constructing an educational tool/database that could be shared through social media platforms might help break the stigma of gender-based violence. This paper documents the progress of this project from idea to reality. The project created an educational tool/database that addresses myths, assumptions, and stereotypes people have about consent, gender, sexuality, and domestic violence. This project is not just a project for me; it holds personal meaning. In this paper, I give a glimpse of my life that I rarely share with the world, but I think it is important to share with others going through similar situations. I want others to feel comfortable and know they are safe with me. The more you read, the more you have a better understanding of the topic.
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    Knowledge and clinical practice of therapists treating comorbid anxiety and insomnia
    (2021-12-10) Feiler, Paul F.; Kelling, Angela S.; Ward, Christopher
    The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which therapists who treat anxiety also treat comorbid insomnia. A survey was created to test therapists’ knowledge about insomnia and their expertise related to effective treatment methods. Results indicate that the majority of therapists in this study have not kept up with research that shows that anxiety and insomnia are bidirectionally causative, interactive, and exacerbating. They have not altered the way they treat clients to ensure that, when treating anxiety, issues related to insomnia are identified and specifically addressed. Additionally, they have failed to learn best practices for treating insomnia. Of the therapists in this study, 59% reported that they do not treat insomnia when it is comorbid with anxiety, and 82% do not use the most efficacious treatment for insomnia, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I), when their clients are experiencing it. A subgroup of therapists who treat insomnia with CBT-I showed superior performance on every measure of the test and on self-reported treatment outcomes. Further exploration of the results, recommendations for future research, and practical implications are discussed.  
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    Chrome, Neon, and Cyborgs: The Cyberpunk Genre in the 1980’s United States
    (2021-12-08) Smith, David J; Hales, Barbara; Hodges, Adam J; Gladden, Samuel L; Sanford, Glenn
    This project was done to prove the viability of fiction as a crucial source of historical artifacts by focusing on the genre of cyberpunk, a genre localized in the 1980s United States, to show how the cultural anxieties Americans had about the shifting trends in media, military, and economic matters birthed that genre. Research for this topic utilized three different fiction mediums from cyberpunk (film, novel, and tabletop roleplaying game) and combined each selected source from these mediums with primary documents drawn from 1980s news outlets, government addresses and press conferences, economic data from places such as the Federal Reserve, and interviews and memoirs from historical actors. This was all kept in context given by secondary source monographs and articles that cover the various topics of the 1980s that caused the anxieties that birthed cyberpunk as a unique and historically localized genre. The conclusion of this work divorced cyberpunk from post-1980s stories that claim that genre. In addition, the conclusion held that fiction has a critical place as historical artifact needed to gain as complete a record of humanity as possible, and that cyberpunk is crucial to understanding 1980s America in particular.