ItemProteoglycan as modulators of embryo-uterine interactions(Springer-Verlag, 1993) Rohde, LarryThe process by which mammalian embryos attach to and invade the uterine endometrium is both fascinating and complex. From early conception until parturition, embryonal and maternal tissues must exist symbiotically without imposing detrimental effects on the other. It remains unclear why the immunologically competent mother fails to reject the embryo in spite of histocompatibility differences. It also is unclear why the highly invasive trophoblast tissue of the embryo normally halts its progress within the endometrium although it clearly has the capacity to invade a wide range of tissues (1, 2). In this regard, the interesting feature of the uterus may not be that it supports embryo implantation, but that it has the unique ability to prevent and limit embryo invasion. ItemIdentification of cell-surface heparin/heparan sulfate- binding proteins of a human uterine epithelial cell line (RL95)(J. Biol. Chem., 1992) Rohde, LarryThe interaction of heparin (HP) with the cell-surface components of a human uterine epithelial carcinoma cell line (RL95) was studied. Binding of [3H]HP to cell surfaces was saturable in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HP and certain forms of heparan sulfate (HS) efficiently compete for [3H]HP binding. In contrast, other glycosaminoglycans, such as chondroitin sulfate, keratan sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and dermatan sulfate, do not compete for binding to these sites. Scatchard analysis revealed that [3H]HP bound to these sites with an apparent KD of 0.7-0.9 microM and a binding capacity of 9 x 10(6) sites/cell to attached cells. EDTA-detached cells displayed a similar apparent KD, but an approximately 2-fold increase in binding capacity. Protease digestion of cells on ice markedly reduced [3H]HP binding, indicating that these binding sites were associated with proteins. In contrast, heparinase treatment of cells stimulated binding by approximately 2-fold, indicating that a large fraction of these binding sites were occupied with endogenous ligand. We examined the structural features of HP/HS required for HP/HS binding. O-Sulfation, substitution of amino groups, and, to a lesser extent, the presence of carboxyl groups were important recognition features of HP/HS by cell-surface HP/HS-binding sites. N-Sulfation was not required. Photoaffinity labeling with 125I-sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azidosalicylamido)-ethyl-1, 3-dithiopropionate-HP was used to identify HP/HS-binding proteins on RL95 cell surfaces. Proteins with M(r) values of 14,000-18,500 and 31,000 were photolabeled at the surfaces of attached cells. Photolabeling was blocked by the addition of excess HP, but not chondroitin sulfate. Additional proteins with M(r) values greater than 31,000 were photolabeled specifically on EDTA-detached cells. Moreover, the M(r) 14,000-18,500 and 31,000 proteins were retained on the EDTA-detached cells. These observations indicated that certain cell-surface HP/HS-binding proteins were not exposed when cells were attached to substrata. Proteins of similar M(r) values as the photolabeled components as well as many additional proteins were identified by heparin-agarose chromatographic selection of extracts of cells labeled metabolically with [35S]methionine or vectorially with Na125I at the cell surface. Fragments of cell-surface HP/HS-binding proteins were released from intact RL95 and mouse uterine epithelial cells by mild trypsinization and isolated by heparin-agarose affinity chromatography. Three peptides with M(r) values between 6000 and 14,000 required greater than 0.5 M salt for elution from heparin-agarose, retained HP binding activity in a 125I-HP gel overlay assay, and selectively bound [3H]HP in a solid-phase binding assay. ItemHeparin-like glycosaminoglycans participate in binding of a human trophoblastic cell line (JAR) to a human uterine epithelial cell line (RL95)(J. Cell. Physiol., 1993) Rohde, LarryIn vitro studies in our laboratory have indicated that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play an important role in murine embryo implantation. In order to investigate the potential function of HSPGs in human implantation, two human cell lines (RL95 and JAR) were used to model uterine epithelium and embryonal trophectoderm, respectively. A heterologous cell-cell adhesion assay was developed to determine if binding of JAR cells to RL95 cells was heparan sulfate-dependent. Labeled, single cell suspensions of JAR cells attached to confluent monolayers of RL95 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Heparin-like glycosaminoglycans and JAR cell proteoglycans competitively inhibited JAR cell adhesion to RL95 cells by 50% or more. A panel of chemically modified heparins were used to demonstrate that O-sulfation and amino group substitution were critical for inhibition of cell-cell adhesion. Treatment with chlorate, an inhibitor of ATP-sulfurylase, resulted in a 56% reduction in cell-cell binding compared to untreated controls. Heparinase and chondroitinase ABC markedly inhibited JAR-RL95 binding, while chondroitinase AC had no significant effect. These observations indicated that HSPGs as well as dermatan sulfate-containing proteoglycans participated in cell-cell binding. Collectively, these results indicate that initial binding interactions between JAR and RL95 cells is mediated by cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with heparin-like properties (i.e., heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate). These observations are consistent with an important role for HS and heparin-like GAGs as well as their corresponding binding sites in early stages of human trophoblast-uterine epithelial cell binding. ItemcDNA cloning and expression of HIP, a novel cell surface heparan sulfate/heparin binding protein of human uterine epithelial cells and cell lines(J. Biol. Chem., 1996) Rohde, LarryHeparan sulfate proteoglycans and their corresponding binding sites have been suggested to play an important role during the initial attachment of murine blastocysts to uterine epithelium and human trophoblastic cell lines to uterine epithelial cell lines. Previous studies on RL95 cells, a human uterine epithelial cell line, had characterized a single class of cell surface heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS)-binding sites. Three major HP/HS-binding peptide fragments were isolated from cell surfaces by tryptic digestion, and partial amino-terminal amino acid sequence for each peptide fragment was obtained (Raboudi, N., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., and Carson, D. D.(1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 11930-11939). In the current study, using approaches of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and cDNA library screening, we have cloned and expressed a novel, cell surface HP/HS-binding protein, named HP/HS interacting protein (HIP), from RL95 cells. The full-length cDNA of HIP encodes a protein of 159 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 17,754 Da and pI of 11.75. Transfection of HIP full-length cDNA into NIH-3T3 cells demonstrated cell surface expression and a size similar to that of HIP expressed by human cells. Predicted amino acid sequence indicates that HIP lacks a membrane spanning region and has no consensus sites for glycosylation. Northern blot analysis detected a single transcript of 1.3 kilobases in both total RNA and poly(AGraphic) RNA. Examination of human cell lines and normal tissues using both Northern blot and Western blot analyses revealed that HIP is expressed at different levels in a variety of human cell lines and normal tissues but absent in some cell lines and some cell types of normal tissues examined. HIP has relatively high homology (Graphic80% both at the levels of nucleotide and protein sequence) to a rodent ribosomal protein L29. Thus, members of the L29 family may be displayed on cell surfaces where they may participate in HP/HS binding events. ItemCell surface expression of HIP, a novel heparin/heparan sulfate binding protein, of human uterine epithelial cells and cell lines(J. Biol. Chem., 1996) Rohde, LarryPrevious studies established that uterine epithelial cells and cell lines express cell surface heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS)-binding proteins (Wilson, O., Jacobs, A. L., Stewart, S., and Carson, D. D. (1990) J. Cell. Physiol. 143, 60-67; Raboudi, N., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., and Carson, D. D. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 11930-11939). The accompanying paper (Liu, S., Smith, S. E., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., Karin, N. J., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11817-11823) describes the cloning of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a candidate cell surface HP/HS interacting protein, HIP, expressed by a variety of human epithelia. A synthetic peptide was synthesized corresponding to an amino acid sequence predicted from the cDNA sequence and used to prepare a rabbit polyclonal antibody. This antibody reacted with a protein with an apparent Mr of 24,000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that was highly enriched in the 100,000 x g particulate fraction of RL95 cells. This molecular weight is similar to that of the protein expressed by 3T3 cells transfected with HIP cDNA. HIP was solubilized from this particulate fraction with NaCl concentrations > or = 0.8 M demonstrating a peripheral association consistent with the lack of a membrane spanning domain in the predicted cDNA sequence. HIP was not released by heparinase digestion suggesting that the association is not via membrane-bound HS proteoglycans. NaCl-solubilized HIP bound to heparin-agarose in physiological saline and eluted with NaCl concentrations of 0.75 M and above. Furthermore, incubation of 125I-HP with transblots of the NaCl-solubilized HIP preparations separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis demonstrated direct binding of HP to HIP. Indirect immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that HIP is expressed on the surfaces of intact RL95 cells. Binding of HIP antibodies to RL95 cell surfaces at 4 degrees C was saturable and blocked by preincubation with the peptide antigen. Single cell suspensions of RL95 cells formed large aggregates when incubated with antibodies directed against HIP but not irrelevant antibodies. Finally, indirect immunofluorescence studies demonstrate that HIP is expressed in both lumenal and glandular epithelium of normal human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle. In addition, HIP expression increases in the predecidual cells of post-ovulatory day 13-15 stroma. Collectively, these data indicate that HIP is a membrane-associated HP-binding protein expressed on the surface of normal human uterine epithelia and uterine epithelial cell lines. ItemComplimentary Expression of Heparin/Heparan Sulfate Interacting Protein and Perlecan at the Human Fetal-Maternal Interface(Biol. Reproduction, 1998) Rohde, LarryThe human hemochorial placenta is a structure formed by the invasion of cytotrophoblasts into the uterus. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated a role for heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and their binding proteins in interactions between human trophoblastic and uterine cell lines in vitro. In this study, expression of both mRNA and protein of a novel, cell surface, heparin/heparan sulfate interacting protein (HIP), by human trophoblastic cell lines-i.e., JAR, JEG, and BeWo-and by human cytotrophoblast was examined throughout gestation. Immunohistochemistry of the human fetal-maternal interface demonstrated abundant HIP expression in cytotrophoblast cells, with lesser staining in syncytiotrophoblast and little or no staining in surrounding stromal or decidual cells. Staining with antibodies to the basement membrane HSPG, perlecan, demonstrated a pattern of staining complementary to that of HIP. Cytotrophoblasts in the uterine stroma, not affiliated with attached villi, displayed a less intense deposition of perlecan. In vitro binding studies of 125I-perlecan to a 17-amino acid synthetic peptide sequence of HIP, which has a high affinity and specificity for heparin/heparan sulfate, indicates that perlecan binds to the HIP peptide with high affinity (KDapp = 0.6 nM) and in a heparin-inhibitable manner. Furthermore, HIP antibodies inhibited by 61-88% in vitro invasion by trophoblasts in assays using primary cultures of normal human cytotrophoblasts. Consistent with this was the observation that immunohistochemically detectable HIP expression was greatly reduced in pre-eclamptic cytotrophoblasts, a condition in which trophoblast invasion is abnormally shallow. It is suggested that HIP potentiates human cytotrophoblast interactions with HSPGs, in vivo, and facilitates trophoblast invasion processes. ItemProapoptotic p53-Interacting Protein 53BP2 Is Induced by UV Irradiation but Suppressed by p53(Molecular and Cellular Biology, 2000) Rohde, Larryp53 is an important mediator of the cellular stress response with roles in cell cycle control, DNA repair, and apoptosis. 53BP2, a p53-interacting protein, enhances p53 transactivation, impedes cell cycle progression, and promotes apoptosis through unknown mechanisms. We now demonstrate that endogenous 53BP2 levels increase following UV irradiation induced DNA damage in a p53-independent manner. In contrast, we found that the presence of a wild-type (but not mutant) p53 gene suppressed 53BP2 steady-state levels in cell lines with defined p53 genotypes. Likewise, expression of a tetracycline-regulated wild-type p53 cDNA in p53-null fibroblasts caused a reduction in 53BP2 protein levels. However, 53BP2 levels were not reduced if the tetracycline-regulated p53 cDNA was expressed after UV damage in these cells. This suggests that UV damage activates cellular factors that can relieve the p53-mediated suppression of 53BP2 protein. To address the physiologic significance of 53BP2 induction, we utilized stable cell lines with a ponasterone A-regulated 53BP2 cDNA. Conditional expression of 53BP2 cDNA lowered the apoptotic threshold and decreased clonogenic survival following UV irradiation. Conversely, attenuation of endogenous 53BP2 induction with an antisense oligonucleotide resulted in enhanced clonogenic survival following UV irradiation. These results demonstrate that 53BP2 is a DNA damage-inducible protein that promotes DNA damage-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, 53BP2 expression is highly regulated and involves both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. Our data provide new insight into 53BP2 function and open new avenues for investigation into the cellular response to genotoxic stress. Itemp53-Interacting Protein 53BP2 Inhibits Clonogenic Survival and Sensitizes Cells to Doxorubicin but not Paclitaxel-induced Apoptosis(Oncogene, 2001) Rohde, Larry53BP2 was initially identified as a protein interacting with p53 in a yeast two-hybrid screen and subsequently shown to enhance p53 transcriptional transactivation and induce apoptosis when transiently overexpressed in cell lines. In order to further study the biologically relevant effects of 53BP2, we have constructed HEK293 stable cell lines where 53BP2 expression can be regulated using an ecdysone inducible expression system. Our results indicate that the response of cells is dependent on the amount of 53BP2 that is expressed. High levels of 53BP2 expression (>or=140-fold above endogenous) impede cell cycle progression and induce apoptosis. Lower levels of 53BP2 expression (6-11-fold above endogenous) suppress colony formation but do not lead to detectable perturbations in the cell cycle or apoptosis. Lower levels of 53BP2 expression sensitized cells to apoptosis induced by DNA damaging chemotherapy agents doxorubicin, ara-C and VP16, but not microtubule active agents paclitaxel and vinblastine. Our results demonstrate that high levels of 53BP2 expression have profound biological effects ultimately leading to apoptosis, whereas lower levels of 53BP2 expression have more subtle effects on growth and sensitize cells to some chemotherapy agents. ItemSuppressed Expression of Non-DSB Repair Genes Inhibits Gamma-radiation Induced Cytogenetic Repair And Cell Cycle Arrest(DNA Repair (Amst), 2008) Rohde, LarryChanges of gene expression profile are one of the most important biological responses in living cells after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure. Although some studies have shown that genes up-regulated by IR may play important roles in DNA damage repair, the relationship between the regulation of gene expression by IR, particularly genes not known for their roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, and its impact on cytogenetic responses has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to identify new roles of IR inducible genes in regulating DSB repair and cell cycle progression. In this study, the expression of 25 genes selected on the basis of their transcriptional changes in response to IR was individually knocked down by small interfering RNA in human fibroblast cells. Frequency of micronuclei (MN) formation and chromosome aberrations were measured to determine efficiency of cytogenetic repair, especially DSB repair. In response to IR, the formation of MN was significantly increased by suppressed expression of five genes: Ku70 (DSB repair pathway), XPA (nucleotide excision repair pathway), RPA1 (mismatch repair pathway), RAD17 and RBBP8 (cell cycle control). Knocked-down expression of four genes (MRE11A, RAD51 in the DSB pathway, SESN1, and SUMO1) significantly inhibited cell cycle progression, possibly because of severe impairment of DNA damage repair. Moreover, decreased XPA, p21, or MLH1 expression resulted in both significantly enhanced cell cycle progression and increased yields of chromosome aberrations, indicating that these gene products modulate both cell cycle control and DNA damage repair. Nine of these eleven genes, whose knock-down expression affected cytogenetic repair, were up-regulated in cells exposed to gamma radiation, suggesting that genes transcriptionally modulated by IR were critical to regulate IR-induced biological consequences. Furthermore, eight non-DBS repair genes showed involvement in regulating DSB repair, indicating that successful DSB repair requires both DSB repair mechanisms and non-DSB repair systems. These results reveal that many genes play previously unrecognized roles in multiple DNA repair responses, all of which are required for successful repair of IR-induced damage. ItemProtein expression profile changes in human fibroblasts induced by low dose energetic protons(Advances in Space Research:Life Sciences in Space, 2009) Rohde, LarryExtrapolation of known radiation risks to the risks from low dose and low dose-rate exposures of human population, especially prolonged exposures of astronauts in the space radiation environment, relies in part on the mechanistic understanding of radiation induced biological consequences at the molecular level. While some genomic data at the mRNA level are available for cells or animals exposed to radiation, the data at the protein level are still lacking. Here, we studied protein expression profile changes using Panorama antibody microarray chips that contain antibodies to 224 proteins (or their phosphorylated forms) involved in cell signaling that included mostly apoptosis, cytoskeleton, cell cycle and signal transduction. Normal human fibroblasts were cultured until fully confluent and then exposed to 2cGy of 150MeV protons at high-dose rate. The proteins were isolated at 2 or 6h after exposure and labeled with Cy3 for the irradiated cells and with Cy5 for the control samples before loading onto the protein microarray chips. The intensities of the protein spots were analyzed using ScanAlyze software and normalized by the summed fluorescence intensities and the housekeeping proteins. The results showed that low dose protons altered the expression of more than 10% of the proteins listed in the microarray analysis in various protein functional groups. Cell cycle (24%) related proteins were induced by protons and most of them were regulators of G1/S-transition phase. Comparison of the overall protein expression profiles, cell cycle related proteins, cytoskeleton and signal transduction protein groups showed significantly more changes induced by protons compared with other protein functional groups.